The plastic mold tooling mainly includes a concave mold with a variable cavity composed of a die combination base plate, a die assembly and a die combination clamping plate, which is cut off by a punch combination base plate, a punch component, a punch combination clamp plate, and a cavity Punches with variable cores consisting of components and side-section composite plates. In order to improve the performance of plastics, various auxiliary materials, such as fillers, plasticizers, lubricants, stabilizers, colorants, etc., must be added to the polymer to become a plastic with good performance.
1. Synthetic resin of plastic material
Synthetic resin is the main component of plastics, and its content in plastics is generally 40% to 100%. Due to the high content and the fact that the properties of the resin usually determine the properties of the plastic, people often regard resin as a synonym for plastic. For example, confuse polyvinyl chloride resin with polyvinyl chloride plastic, phenolic resin and phenolic plastic.
In fact, resin and plastic are two different concepts. Resin is a kind of unprocessed raw polymers, it not only used to make plastics, and coatings, adhesives and synthetic fiber materials. Except for a very small part of plastics containing 100% resin, the vast majority of plastics need to add other substances in addition to the main component resin.
2. Filler of plastic material
Plastic material fillers are also called fillers, which can improve the strength and heat resistance of plastics and reduce costs. For example, adding wood powder to phenolic resin can greatly reduce the cost, making phenolic plastic one of the cheapest plastics, and can also significantly improve the mechanical strength. Fillers can be divided into organic fillers and inorganic fillers, the former such as wood flour, rags, paper and various fabric fibers, etc., and the latter such as glass fibers, diatomaceous earth, asbestos, carbon black, etc.
3. Plasticizer for plastic materials
Plasticizers can increase the plasticity and softness of plastics, reduce brittleness, and make plastics easy to process and shape. Plasticizers for plastic molds are generally miscible with resins, non-toxic, odorless, light- and heat-stable high-boiling organic compounds, the most commonly used are phthalates. For example, when producing polyvinyl chloride plastics, if more plasticizers are added, soft polyvinyl chloride plastics can be obtained, and if no or less plasticizers are added, hard polyvinyl chloride plastics can be obtained.
4. Stabilizer for plastic materials
In order to prevent the synthetic resin from being decomposed and damaged by light and heat during processing and use, and to prolong the service life, a stabilizer should be added to the plastic. Commonly used are stearate, epoxy resin and so on.
5. Colorants for plastic materials
Colorants can make plastic mold manufacturing products have various bright and beautiful colors. Organic dyes and inorganic pigments are commonly used as colorants.
6. Lubricant for plastic materials
The role of the lubricant is to prevent the plastic from sticking to the metal mold during molding, and at the same time to make the surface of the plastic smooth and beautiful. Commonly used lubricants include stearic acid and its calcium and magnesium salts. In addition to the above-mentioned additives, flame retardants, foaming agents, antistatic agents, etc. can also be added to plastics.